A Dual-Mode User Interface for Accessing 3D Content on
the World Wide Web
Jacek Jankowski and Stefan Decker
The Web evolved from a text-based system to the current rich and interactive medium that supports images, 2D graphics, audio and video. The major media type that is still missing is 3D graphics. Although various approaches have been proposed (most notably VRML/X3D), they have not been widely adopted. One reason for the limited acceptance is the lack of 3D interaction techniques that are optimal for the hypertext-based Web interface. We present a novel strategy for accessing integrated information spaces, where hypertext and 3D graphics data are simultaneously available and linked. We introduce a user interface that has two modes between which a user can switch anytime: the driven by simple hypertext-based interactions "don't-make-me-think" mode, where a 3D scene is embedded in hypertext and the more immersive 3D "take-me-to-the-Wonderland" mode, which immerses the hypertextual annotations into the 3D scene.
A user study is presented, which characterizes the user interface in terms of its efficiency and usability.
In Proceedings of the 21st International World Wide Web Conference (WWW'12)
Lyon, France, 2012
A Taskonomy of 3D Web Use
This paper aims to shed some light on the fundamental tasks users engage in while
browsing the 3D Web. Firstly, we will provide an overview and discussion of several
field studies that provide insights on how the current version of the Web is used
focusing on the tasks that users carry out. Then we will present a comprehensive
review of the state of the art of mouse-based 3D interaction techniques for Desktop
3D Virtual Environments (DVEs). Finally, we will introduce a simple taxonomy - a
"3D Web Taskonomy" that was designed to assists designers and developers
of interactive 3D Web applications to better evaluate their options when choosing
and implementing an interaction technique.
In Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on 3D Web Technology 2011 (Web3D'11)
Paris, France, 2011
Integrating Text with Video and 3D Graphics: The Effects of Text Drawing
Styles on Text Readability
Jacek Jankowski, Krystian Samp, Izabela Irzynska, Marek Jozwowicz and Stefan Decker
There have been many studies of computer based text reading. However, only a few
have considered text integrated with video and 3D graphics. This paper presents
an investigation into the effects of varying (a) text drawing style (plain, billboard,
Anti-Interference, shadow), (b) image polarity (positive and negative), and (c)
background style (video and 3D) on text readability. Reading speed and accuracy
were measured and subjective views of participants recorded.
Results showed that: (a) there was little difference in reading performance for
the video and 3D backgrounds; (b) the negative presentation outperformed the positive
presentation; (c) the billboard drawing styles supported the best performance; subjective
comments showed a preference for the billboard style. We therefore suggest, for
reading tasks, that designers of interfaces for games, video, and augmented reality
provide billboard style to maximize readability for the widest range of applications..
In Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Human Factors in Computing
Systems 2010 (CHI'10), Atlanta, USA, 2010.
2LIP: Filling the Gap between the Current and the Three-Dimensional Web
Jacek Jankowski, Stefan Decker
In this article we present a model for 2-Layer Interface Paradigm (2LIP). 2LIP is
an approach for designing simple yet interactive 3D web applications, an attempt
to marry advantages of 3D experience with the advantages of the narrative structure
of hypertext. The hypertext information, together with graphics, and multimedia,
is presented semi-transparently on the foreground layer. It overlays the 3D representation
of the information displayed in the background of the interface. We describe implementations
of the 2LIP model: 2LIPGarden (HTML context) and Copernicus (wiki context). We want
to show that our model can be easily employed to the existing web infrastructure.
In Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on 3D Web Technology 2009 (Web3D'09)
Darmstadt, Germany, 2009
2LIPGarden – 3D Hypermedia for Everyone
Jacek Jankowski, Izabela Irzynska, Bill McDaniel, Stefan Decker
The early Web was hailed for being easy to use, and what is more important, giving
people a chance to participate in its growth. The Web3D was believed to have potential
to be the next step in the Web’s evolution, since it could benefit from graphics
hardware and provide users with new and exciting experiences. Nevertheless, Virtual
Reality Markup Language (VRML), the first Web3D standard, and its successor X3D,
did not generate commercial success. These languages were excessively complex for
average Internet users.
In this paper, we propose 2LIPGarden, a 3D Hypermedia publishing framework that
lets individuals who only know basic HTML – those same enthusiasts who could write
pages for the early Web – create simple, easy to use yet interactive 3D web pages.
Our framework builds upon 2-Layer Interface Paradigm (2LIP), an attempt to marry
advantages of 3D experience with the advantages of narrative structure of hypertext.
We introduce c-link to HTML, a new type of hyperlink, which connects text with its
In Proceedings of the 20th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2009 (HT'09),
Torino, Italy, 2009
Accessing Cultural Heritage using the Web of Data
Jacek Jankowski, Yolanda Cobos, Michael Hausenblas and Stefan Decker
Cultural Heritage (CH) is a vast domain, where sharing information is challenging.
As a result, the global CH is distributed and heterogeneous. In this paper, we present
the concept of the Web of Data as an approach to integrating CH collections. We
introduce the CHoWDer (Cultural Heritage on the Web of Data) model, the simple model
designed to illustrate how easily CH institutions can participate in the Linked
In Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Virtual Reality, Archaeology
and Cultural Heritage 2009 (VAST'09), St.Julians, Malta, 2009.
IKHarvester – Informal eLearning with SemanticWeb Harvesting.
Jacek Jankowski, Adam Westerski, Sebastian Ryszard Kruk, Tadhg Nagle, Jaroslaw Dobrzanski
Only recently, researchers and practitioners alike have begun to fully understand
the potential of eLearning and have concentrated on new tools and technologies for
creating, capturing and distributing knowledge. In order to support and extend those
solutions we propose the idea of incorporating the informal knowledge into Learning
Management Systems. Contributing to the body of research, problems of existing eLearning
technologies are documented highlighting areas of definite improvement. Finally,
sematic web harvesting technology as a solution is explored in the form of the knowledge
acquisition tool called IKHarvester.
In Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Semantic Computing 2008
(ICSC'08), Santa Clara, CA, USA, 2008.
Adapting informal sources of knowledge to e-Learning.
Jacek Jankowski, Filip Czaja, Dobrzanski Jaroslaw
The amount of information sources and the available data is growing dramatically
fast nowadays. It is very difficult time for teachers to keep up with changes, especially
in information domain, and to find new and appropriate sources of information; this
problem also affects e-Learning. Contemporary e-Learning systems deliver predefined,
rigid courses which usually do not take into account user specific conditions, like
wishing to broaden his or her knowledge in wide range of domains at the same time.
Without constant maintenance, electronic courses are also getting outdated. Moreover,
all of the current solutions seem to underestimate the potential of informal learning.
According to researches, over eighty per cent of possessed knowledge is acquired
from informal sources of information like wikis, blogs and digital libraries. These
Web 2.0 platforms allow community to collaborate, share knowledge and ideas; in
addition, these services are continuously developed to serve the users better. Semantic
description of available sources not only interconnects them but also allows machines
to reason about their content. Consequently, artifacts can be easily accessed, browsed
and harvested for further use.
Following the presented idea, we introduce Didaskon, a framework for automated composition
of a learning path for a student. The selection and workflow scheduling of learning
objects is based on their description, semantically annotated specification of user
profiles, anticipated knowledge after course completion, and technical details of
the client’s platform. User profile is described with FOAFRealm Ontology; it is
based on FOAF metadata that provides functionality to manage identities and share
resources with friends. Having in mind statistics about acquiring knowledge, Didaskon
derives both from formal and informal sources of information. It collects relevant
data from wikis or blogs and processes them so that they can be used in a form of
learning objects; it enriches and improves the process of learning.
In Proceedings of 5th Annual Teaching and Learning Conference 2007 (CELT'07), Galway,